Politics After the end of cold war it was believed that there is no serious rival to the Western Democracy. •Decisions are carried out by actions taken to change the world, and Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Policies that focus on finances arise from profit maximization, cost minimization and internal control objectives. “Foreign policy is the key element in the process by which a state translates its broadly conceived goals and interests into concrete course of action to attain these objectives and preserve interests”. Determinants of Foreign policy Two type of factors A. For example, a state may need to respond to an international crisis. Whereas in case of conventional weapons, it has to carry out ‘finite’ deterrence in order to deter the enemy from attacking it, in case of nuclear weapons, thanks to their expensive and destructive nature, only ‘minimum deterrence’ is considered enough. Japan, it doesn’t have the indigenous resources to satiate the ever-increasing needs and requirements of its industry; it has to import most of them. A state while pursuing such type of objectives seeks to gain almost at the expense of all other states. Pakistan though not fully comfortable with being a willing partner in the Global War on Terror, has to be committed to the same owing to international concerns and being apprehensive of international backlash. In other words, plans may be present at the same time, or before, a need to act has They therefore consider Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) a useless tactic unless there is a real progress on the count of issues resolution. Other departments may also have a role in implementing foreign policy, such as departments for: trade, defence, and aid. Being sensible to the sensibilities of other states, no state can adopt a unilateral policy. Pakistan was to take a smart strategic U-turn in order to be able to take advantage from the changed international structure. State cannot afford to show any laxity on this count. Pakistan has concentrated her full attention on her eastern borders, because it perceives that its security stakes mainly rest there. VAT Registration No: 842417633. What is of greater concern is the ideological expansion i.e. For example, a policy about smoking in the workplace should cite any government regulations and address concerns you may have about the health of your employees. This process includes three stages: foreign policy initiation, formulation and implementation. Status and prestige of a state can be secured only if the state is economically stable and prosperous. Size 2. Similarly dissemination of capitalist economy and democracy is one of the long range objectives of the US policy. The enormous population of China enabled it to pursue a forceful foreign policy. States seek to safeguard the core objectives at all costs. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? While specific policy directives depend on the topic, such as compliance, safety or internal control, virtually every business policy goes through five main development stages. They apply the same formula to India and Pakistan whereby increased trade volume and interdependence would raise the stakes of both states in the maintenance of peace. They are called Core Objectives as well, because these objectives are attained at all costs. There are analyses and views, mostly on Pakistani side, that no trust could be build up unless and until both the parties are able to make any substantial movement towards the resolution of their outstanding issues. Capitalism, market economy, English language and democracy of Western model and style have occupied a place in the international system just because of hectic and effective propagation of the same by the West. They have profound impact on the determination of the foreign policy of a state. The whole essence of this prelude is that the term foreign policy cannot be studied in isolation from the factors that determine it. On the other side if the state possesses sufficient natural resources but less population, then it may not be able to assert it. It was the Long Range Objective of Communist Russia, because by doing so they did not set any time limit for the realization of these objectives. While the first three stages of policy-making focus on “what,” the fourth stage focuses on publicizing the policy and making it work. Traditionally, Pakistan’s policy has been India-centric, and its pattern of relations with the rest of the world has been subservient to that factor. In the process, the state has to diversify its trade and economy in order to make it resilient enough to come up to the challenges of the competitive world. It matters whether the country has natural frontiers: that is whether it is protected by oceans, high mountains, or deserts. Foreign policy of a state is concerned with the behaviour of a state towards other states. The rational choice model is widely considered to be the paradigmatic approach to the study of international relations and foreign policy. It has no time to delay or postpone the fulfilling of these objectives. A breakdown in any of these steps may end up compromising the quality of results achieved. And while system-level variables help to explain or predict broad historical trends, no crisis or war is understandable Instances from USA and the defunct Soviet Union’s history can be quoted to substantiate this point. Military strength of a country is closely linked to its resourcefulness and the development of its industry. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. UN and other multilateral forums come to the rescue of the aggressed state. China on its part did understand Pakistan’s compulsions and didn’t entertain any ill-will against Pakistan. The structure of a policy can be tested by asking whether it is simple to The role and importance of international institutions as instruments of states’ foreign policies, and the political, military, functional, economic and humanitarian roles played principally by the United Nations in international relations cannot be overestimated. The focus is on dynamic complex models recognizing the environment as a major input component of foreign policy decision-making processes. The Five Stages of the Policy-Making Process Identify Policy Objectives. •States take actions because people in governments—decision makers—choose those actions. The natural resources of a country also profoundly influence the determination of a foreign policy. Foreign policy decision-making, an approach to international relations, is aimed at studying such decisions. Reference this. Likewise the system of states is fast transforming into a society of states state where each and every individual states has regard for the rights of other states. Parameters should clearly identify whether the policy applies to all or only certain areas of the workplace. But a few years later in the wake of the dismemberment of Pakistan, it was none other than Bhutto himself who excelled in diplomatic skills at Simla. During the bipolar world system, however, the ideological fault lines were more clearly marked, and it was not easy for states to switch sides frequently. To illustrate, the federal government has a perspective on immigration reform much different from that of the governors of states mandated to provide services to a growing number of illegal immigrants. The foreign policy aims at enhancement of the influence of the state by expanding its area of influence the reducing of other states to the position of dependency. A strong case can be made that the very nature of the U.S. system of government encourages fragmented policies. They have been classified into short range, middle range and long-range objectives. India and China have to some extent shelved their historical mistrust in order to pave ground for their mutual trade. In addition, foreign policy goals may conflict, which will require the state to prioritise. When they would refrain from creating any war mania for sometime, that would decrease trust deficit between the two nuclear armed neighbours which in turn may help them to resolve their outstanding issues down the road. The industrial development of a state also plays an important role in determining its foreign policy. The case of Israel can be quoted as an example. The making of foreign policy involves a number of stages: Assessment of the international and domestic political environment - Foreign policy is made and implemented within an... Goal setting - A state has multiple foreign policy goals. Foreign Policy Decision-Making This is the process of making foreign policies. Without any physical unity the state would cease to remain a state. This view, however, cannot be fully subscribed to. Here Indian diplomacy was equal to the task. In fact, it is government and leadership, which convert the potential power of a state into actual power. Each country possesses an individuality of its own, which is the outcome of its historical and geographical configuration. A state possessing sufficient military strength has greater initiative and bargaining power in the international arena. Start studying The Policy MAking Process. For these reasons, identifying questions or issues your business should address is the first stage of policy creation. Reviewed by: Michelle Seidel, B.Sc., LL.B., MBA. It refers to the ways in which the central governments of sovereign states relate to each other and to the global system in order to achieve various goals or objectives. The demise of the Soviet Union and the advent of the uni-polar world has its own system dynamics. For example, if you are developing a policy statement regarding smoking in the workplace, you might base the policy strictly on state-mandated regulations. One primary objective of each county’s foreign policy is to maintain its own political independence and security. Even today the vast size of states like China and Russia renders the talk of their conquest problematic. Geographical location has exercised a great impact on the foreign policy of Britain. Usually, the decision makers will only choose those who seem more important to the quality of life of the United States. So foreign policy is the bundle of principles and practices that regulate the intercourse of a state vis-à-vis other states. The modern state system has been in existence since 1648 Treaty of Westphalia. However, if you feel state regulations don’t fully address goals in your business vision, you might decide to address the issue by following state guidelines but also making the policy more restrictive. History of inter-state relations is full of examples where the countries succeeded in attaining their objectives through wise diplomacy, even though they lack other elements of power e.g. 1. Further they have no time restrictions, as time limit is usually employed in pursuit of core and middle range objectives. When a review determines a policy is proving ineffective, or if regulatory or business standards change, the business owner or decision-making team determines whether changing the existing policy or creating an entirely new policy is the best solution. Goal setting– A state has multiple foreign policy goals. Foreign policy decisions are usually made by the executive branch of government. As Pakistan’s and for that matter any state’s survival tops the agenda of objectives, so it has to side with the US in the wake of Post 9/11 and the latter’s decision to be down with the Taliban. Thus Italy used this skill deftly and switched sides during the height of World War I to gain its share in the post war colonial arrangement. There must be enough material to inflict unacceptable damages upon the aggressor, if an attack accrues. • Legislation is law. Ideas for creating effective business policies come from goals such as innovation, providing outstanding customer service and complying with government regulations. So, the worth of the approach is undeniable. The “End of History and the Last Man” is a 1992 book by Fukiyama expanding the 1992 essay “The End of History?” published in the Foreign Affairs journal “The National Interest”. The states try to impress about their military superiority in a number of ways, such as nuclear tests, mobilization of army, periodical display of military forces, devices and techniques. Realizing the importance of this factor in adding to the strength and prestige of a country even the underdeveloped and agricultural countries are keen to get industrialized as quickly as possible. It matters where on the globe a country is located. But if there are sufficient resources to meet the requirements of a large population, then it certainly adds to the power of the state, as this may enable it to mould its foreign policy accordingly. Moreover, it has to deal with the source of the threat directly i.e. During the decade of fifties when Pakistan was known as the most allied ally of the United States, Pakistan had to exercise its vote against the People’s Republic of China blocking its entry into the world forum. Plus he should be skillful enough to use the tools of statecraft for the realization of the national objectives. The example of Canada can be quoted in this respect. In the traditional multi-polar system, it was easier for states to switch sides and gain maximum gains from all sides. A state must determine which goal is affected by the international and domestic political environment at any given time. Foreign Policy Decision Making 511 Framing National Security Judgments: The Fundamental Decision Dilemma Historically, the study of international relations has understandably focused on patterns of conflict and cooperation.! She continues her precarious existence despite the combined opposition of the Allied nations; she has power to maintain an assertive foreign policy. It is also based on the observations regarding the traditional behaviour of a given state. In the post World War II, Oil diplomacy in the Middle East has greatly determined foreign policy not only of the states of the region, but also of the entire world. These international organizations to varying degrees serve as modifiers of state behaviour and as independent actors in their own right. The premise of this paper is that the revision of the stages metaphor for the public policy-making process is best undertaken from an institutional rather than individualist approach to … Determinants of FP Internal Factors 1. It has to deal with multiple sources while pursuing these objectives. Foreign Policy is the use of political influence in order to induce other states to exercise their law-making power in a manner desired by the states concerned: it is an interaction between forces originating outside the country’s borders and those working within them. If the resources of a country are not sufficient to meet the requirements of the large population, the latter may pose a serious challenge to the very existence of the state. The states were faithfully wedded to their respective alliances, and any signs of freedom were strictly checked by the two superpowers. Leaders like Hitler, Mussolini, Ball Thackeray, and Nrindra Modi could easily disturb the forward and steady movement of the nation; they jeopardize international peace and security as well. presidential foreign policy making as a five-stage process-problem representation, option generation, policy selection, implementation, and policy review-arguing that the degree to which presidents are responsive to public opinion varies with fluctuations in public attentive- Most policy models generally include the following stages: (1) identifying the issue to be addressed by the proposed policy, (2) placement on the agenda, (3) formulation of the policy, (4) implementation of the policy, and (5) evaluation of the policy. Each and every step of the policy making process is crucial and vital when developing a policy. Those factors that influence and determine the foreign policy of a country are its determinants. 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